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Thomas B. Wales, Jr. and The Brookbank Herd

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For a period of 10 years, 1881 to 1891, Iowa City, Johnson County, Iowa, was home to one of the leaders of the Holstein breeders of the United States. Thomas Beale Wales, Jr. (18391922) was a dairy stock breeder who is associated with the history of the Holstein breed of cattle in the United States and inventor of the first recording system for tracking animal pedigree. Many of his notable accomplishments occurred while his farm was established at what was then just east of the limits of Iowa City, in east Lucas Township, Johnson County, Iowa.

Wales’ primary achievements were promoting, raising, breeding,  and cataloging purebred Holstein cattle. Wales was publisher of the Holstein herd book for twelve years and as an aid to his process, he devised a card catalog not for library materials but for cattle.[1]  A cow he bred won the world record in butter production.[2] Wales was lauded for his work during life and eulogized in trade publications at his death.[3] Wales was a founding member and one of three vice-presidents for the Association of Breeders of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle.[4] He was a founding member and first secretary of the Holstein-Friesian Association of America, a position he held from 1885 to 1893.[5]  These organizations led to the current Holstein Association USA, which is primarily concerned with pedigree and promotion of Holstein dairy cattle.[6]  Wales was president of the Iowa Holstein-Friesian association for a number of years.[7] Wales also listed himself as member of the the Iowa Improved Stock Breeders Association, Aberdeen Angus Association, and Jersey Association and served multiple terms as president  of the Holstein-Friesian Association of Iowa.[8] 

From a modern farm on the east side of Iowa City he raised a number of  champion butter cows and breeder bulls.  From an office downtown he cataloged breeding stock for the Holstein and Holstein-Friesian Association of America, and tirelessly promoted the breed to farmers across America, but especially the Midwest.

Early Life

Thomas Beale Wales, Jr. was born in 1839 at Boston, Massachusetts to Thomas Beal and Jeannette Maria “Mary” (Howe) Wales. Wale’s father was a successful merchant, as was his father before him. They were involved in shipping as well. The family lived in the fashionable ninth ward located just southwest of the Boston Common. The family was able to employ three servants. Thomas had one known brother, Joseph Howe Wales (18391907).[9] 

Wales was the third person with the same name in an unbroken family line of five Thomas Beale Wales. Wales’ grandfather was also a Thomas Beal Wales. Thomas B. Wales, Jr. (18151877), the subject’s father and first T.B. Wales, Jr., was a wealthy merchant with real estate amounting to $30,000 and a personal estate of $45,000 in 1860an equivalent approaching  $1.4 Million in 2019.[10] He was also a medical doctor, graduating from Harvard in 1847 and practicing in Boston.[11] 

Thomas B. Wales, Jr., our subject, began his career as a clerk; most likely for his father.[12] In 1861, Thomas married Anna Kimball (18331911) in Boston.[13] Her given name was variously also written as Anne or Ann. Thomas listed himself as a merchant on the marriage certificate. Anna’s parents were Daniel and Louisa Keith Kimball.  Wales’ great aunt was Louisa Wales Kimball. His grandmother was Anne Beal and mother Maria Smith Howe.

In 1862, Wales joined the Union Army and fought in the Civil war. He enlisted at the rank of private and attended officer’s school as a cadet in May and June. He earned a commission as an officer in September that year.[14] He served in Company E, Massachusetts 45th Volunteer Infantry Regiment and mustered out in July 1863 with the rank of captain.[15] 

Thomas and Anna then had four children: Maria Mable, Maude Howe, Robert Ware, and the eldest, Thomas Beal, Jr., who was born in 1864. All four children were born in Massachusetts, and came to Iowa around 1882. Thomas, Jr. or Thomas, 3rd as local press named him, in turn had a sonthe fifth Thomas B. Wales. He was born in 1893. The local press called Anna a leading social figure.[16] 

The children did not figure prominently in history, though Thomas B. Wales, 3rd, the fourth T.B. Wales, traveled to the Netherlands to purchase stock cattle for his father in 1883 and later was listed occasionally as Thomas B. Wales, Jr. & Son for stock show and auction purposes.[17] Robert Wales eventually took up breeding chickens at Blue Rock farm on the west side of Iowa City and attracted attention briefly in the local press for this.[18] He managed the family farm in Iowa prior to this for about a year.[19] 

Why Wales decided to become a stock breeder is unknown. He was recorded as a merchant living with Anna and their children in Brookline, Massachusetts in 1870, having amassed a small fortune of his own by that time ($15,000 real estate; $25,000 personal estate).[20] By 1870, Wales had begun raising stock. The herd book records a cow be bred was calved in September, 1871.[21] Given the time to breed and calve cattlearound 283 daysWales had to have been raising stock by November, or December, 1870.[22]  In 1880, he was recorded as a farmer twenty-five miles from his Ninth Ward boyhood home and living in Framingham, Massachusetts.[23] His breed of choice was Holstein cattle.[24] 

Holstein Cattle

Holsteins are what many people think of when they think of dairy cows. Holsteins are large, robust animals with sharply defined black and white spots and the cows have noticeably large udders. The pelvis characteristically rises above the line of the spine. In the herd books of the nineteenth century, they were described as white with black spots or black with white spots. A recessive gene can produce a red color variation, something that was not well understood until the second third of the twentieth century.

Establishing Holstein as a butter breed started with Wales’ cow Mercedes, who won the Breeder’s Gazette Challenge Cup in 1883. The position of butter champions was solidified by the end of 1887.[25] Butter from a Holstein cow was awarded first prize at the Iowa State Fair in 1885.[26] In 1886, a butter test at the Minnesota State Fair awarded all three prizes to Holstein cows, even though more Jerseys had been entered in the competition. The first premium for  butter was awarded to a Holstein at the Chicago Fat Stock Show in 1886. In 1887, Holstein butter took two first premiums and took the sweepstakes for best butter cow of any breed. It was stated that Holsteins would average 15 to 20 pounds per week per cow at a minimum.[27]

About The Name

The origin of the name Holstein for cattle is somewhat enigmatic. The same breed has gone by many names, including Holstein-Friesian cattle, Holland cattle, Dutch cattle, or Dutch-Friesian cattle. The name Holstein appears in a report by Winthrop Chenery, the first known breeder in the United States, that he wrote to the US Department of Agriculture in 1864.[28] Previous to this report and to some extent afterward, Chenery tended to use the term Dutch cattle, but for unclear reasons he referred to the breed as Holstein in that report. Citing growing popularity of the term, Chenery later said The United States Department of Agriculture preferred the Holstein name he had used in his report, and it stuck.

But the name is even more enigmatic than that. There was the perception among breeders in the United States that Holstein cattle had originated from a presumed superior breed of animals in the region formerly known as the Duchy of Holstein.[29] Holstein today is the north German political unit that is situated south of Schleswig at the southern base of the Danish peninsula. The area has been generally known as Holstein since the Middle Ages when it had a hereditary Duke as ruler. Political control of the Holstein area has since been variously with Denmark or Germany. Today it is part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

Despite the name, the breed is now thought to have originated in an area somewhat broader, extending to the west of Holstein into the low countries of Northern Europe at the southwest corner of the North Sea.[30] This area would have included the Dutch provinces of North Holland, Friesland, and Groningen and included the west section of German Holstein.[31] 

A more colorful origin story of Holstein cattle is attributed in the historic trade literature to have been the apocryphal product of the Frisian and Batavian peoples who helpfully cross-breed their all white and all back cattle to form the progenitor to modern black and white Holsteins.[32] This story is reported to be mostly conjecture even in the primarily cited source of this story, which is a  late nineteenth century history of the breed.[33] Later scientific descriptions of the breed  in the twentieth century discount the authenticity of this story due to lack of data.[34] Despite this, the legend lives on today in the dairy industry  and information provided by various agricultural extension services, which cite the late 19th century account. As it happens, it now appears genetic studies only can confirm that due to heavy domestic selection for size and production, modern breeds such as Holsteins are genetically new and they are not genetically related to native northern European cattle for the most part.[35] Around eighty percent of genetic traits measured are completely new compared to native cow breeds. Much of this selection appears to have occurred in America, largely beginning in the late nineteenth century when competition breeding began to become common, but took a marked change in the 1940s with artificial insemination.[36] In any event, Holsteins originally  imported to America came from the northeastern part of the current day country of the Netherlands and were cited as from Holland or Friesland.[37] 

The name of the cattle breed was in dispute among breeders for some time after Chernery’s 1864 report. Over the course of the next twenty years the name of the breed came back up at annual meetings with members advocating for the name Holland Cattle, though that was inaccurate. An alternative of Dutch cattle, Chenery’s original name for the breed, became unavailable when the name was adopted by the Dutch-Friesian cattle association in 1877.[38] For many years after the two principal cattle associations of this breed merged in 1885, the association was known as the Holstein-Friesian Association of America.[39] One might contemplate why Holland-Friesland was not chosen, which is likely where the mythical origins come in. Ultimately, Holstein prevailed as the name. Today it is the Holstein Association USA.

By the 1871, the Holstein stock breeders association had at least settled, if not on the name  for the breed, at least on the definition of what a Holstein was for certification of Holstein pedigree:

Thoroughbred Holstein shall be held to mean and refer to only those large improved black and white cattle already registered in the Holstein Herd Book and such as are descended from them in direct line both as to sire and dam and such large improved black and white cattle of the same breed imported from North Holland and the neighboring provinces as are proved by the affirmation of the breeder of the animal satisfactory to the examining committee and by the examination and report of the examining committee to be thoroughbred animals.[40]

The primary concern for Victorian or modern cattle breeders regarding purity of stock is related to the science behind how to get the highest milk and butter yields possible. Without genetics, there wasn’t really any other way to trace purity of the breed than the herd book. Since purity of the breed is what the breeders were concerned with, the herd book became very important in tracking cattle of high performance and from where they were  imported, bred, bought, or sold. The Herd Book allowed the pedigree of each animal to be traced.

The first Holstein herd book anywhere was published by the Association of Breeders of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle in 1872.[41] This occurred even before one was published in the Netherlands, where the animals were imported from. The first Netherlands herd book was published in 1873, at the encouragement of Thomas E. Whiting of Concord, Massachusetts.[42]

The Holstein breed is thought to have had some early imports to America in the seventeenth century, especially in the Dutch colonies. No heard book was kept and there is no register as to where and when animals were bought or how they were thereafter bred resulting in a lack of pedigree.[43] The assumption now is those cattle lineages became mixed and lost to purebred status. Therefore, the modern American pedigree of Holsteins extends back to the imports of cattle by Winthrop Chenery of Belmont, Massachusetts. He first imported a single cow in 1852 and was so impressed by its milk production that he decided to take up breeding new dairy stock for American farmers. Toward that end, he had imported two more cows and a bull in 1857.[44] Chenery, however, experienced some difficulty in establishing his breeding stock.  When he imported four more cows, they contracted a disease and out of all his cattle, only the bull survived. In 1861, Chenery imported a further four cows and a second bull and from there his stock grew.

Trade in Holstein cattle was nearly exclusive to Chenery through the 1860s.[45] As a result, Chenery dominated the first herd book, in terms of sires (breeding bulls) and dams (breeding cows).[46] While eventually others, such as Wales, would also purchase their own Holsteins to import in the 1870s, Chenery clearly was the founding breeder of Holsteins in America and all the early members of the Holstein association were buying animals from Chenery through the 1860s and later.

Wales Herd in Framingham

In the 1872 herd book, Wales was recorded as owner of  one bull, Van Tromp 2d, bred by Chenery and two cows, Zuider Zee 9th and Maid of Opperdoes, also bred by Chenery.[47] Wales is known to have imported cattle directly from Holland for the first time in 1879.[48] Wales also had two other bulls, Van Tromp 3d and Van Tromp 4th, that he had bred. He also was the breeder of a cow named Maud.

Wales’ Framingham herd earned him a reputation. His herd was awarded first prize at the New England Fair in 1872.[49] Wales and two other stock breeders exhibited their cattle the same year at the New York State Agricultural Society gaining recognition for Holsteins as “milk, butter, and beef cattle,” according to Gerrit Miller, writing in 1922.[50] This was a point that Wales had made previously in newspaper columns on the breed in the last quarter of the nineteenth century while living in Iowa City.[51] 

The great size of these cattle, surpassing the Short-Horns, coupled with good feeding quality, assures the owner of fair compensation for his grades and old cows when turn­ed out for beef.[52]

While in Framingham, Wales along with four others that included Chenery, Charles Houghton, C.C. Walworth, and William Russell  founded the Association of Breeders of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle in 1871.[53] Wales was directly elected an officer of the association. He was one of three vice-presidents in 1871. After he moved to Iowa, he continued to shape the association as Secretary and Editor of the Herd Book starting in 1881 with volume 5, also publishing a series of reprints of the herd book, which he continued to do through 1893.[54] Wales was also involved in merging the association with the Dutch-Friesian association in 1885, serving on the joint Charter and Bylaws Committee to form the Holstein-Friesian Association of America.[55] He then became the first Secretary and Editor of the new association in 1885, continuing in that position until 1894.[56] As this suggests, the larger contributions to the field made by Wales were following his move to Iowa.

Wales in Johnson County

While Wales brought many head of cattle to Johnson County, he was not the first to raise cattle there. Johnson County resident Legrand Byington is credited with the first herd of purebred cattle in Iowa and Carey R. Smith was first to raise Holsteins in Johnson County.[57] The local press thought much of Wales and his contemporaries in stock breeding.  “Iowa City is the center of the largest and best fine stock district in the world,” the Republican wrote.[58]

 Wales visited Iowa City in the fall of 1880.[59] In 1881, he placed a string of want ads for a domestic servant for his boarding room on North Clinton Street.[60] He moved his heard from Framingham that year.[61] In late December, 1881, an article describing his farm, Brookbank, appeared in a regional trade publication.[62] A string of adds offering Holstein cattle for sale followed and continued until March 1882 in that publication. Also in 1882,  articles began to appear in the Iowa City press extolling the virtues of Holstein cattle for beef, milk, and butter.[63] That same year wales brought forty-five head of Holsteins from Friesland via Massachusetts by rail.[64] By winter of 18821883, Wales was selling a significant number of stock animals in Iowa and nearby, selling eleven bulls and eighteen cows and heifers while retaining fifty five head at Brookbank.[65] 

There is little doubt the location near a railroad was of importance to a person selling large animals in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and this likely weighed as a factor for Wale’s choice to move to Iowa City. For example, three Burton stock cars were used to bring in 53 head of cattle in 1883.[66] The Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Northern railway spur into Iowa City crossed the north portion of the farm and the region was also served by the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific line. A move to Iowa City situated Wales with rail access in an expanding market for cattle.

The growing population of farmers, especially those raising dairy and beef cattle in the region had to also be a factor to move to Iowa, which in particular was then the home of a growing dairy and beef industry at a time that immigration of European Americans to the state was at its highest point. Along with Holstein cattle, Angus and Hereford imports were also high during the 1880s as farmers took up raising stock along with growing crops in a movement to diversify their operations as recommended by the State Agricultural Society.[67] Despite financial market collapses with repeated panics through the last quarter of the nineteenth century, farmers were experiencing an increased standard of living relative to other sectors of the economy and purchasing new stock was likely affordable.[68] 

During his tenure in Johnson County, Wales not only saw to his stock breeding as well as the affairs of the Holstein associations, but he was also involved financially and socially in Iowa City. The 1883 History of Johnson County notes he was a member of the board of directors for the Iowa City Bank,  which was founded in 1875 and later expanded as the Iowa City National Bank.[69] His fellow backers were a who’swho list of many prominent Iowa City business leaders including former governor Samuel Kirkwood and early local entrepreneur Ezekiel Clark. Others included John N. Coldren and Theodore Sanxay.[70] The involvement with this circle is an indication of his influence in Iowa City.

Other society ties included the Fairall family and real estate seller C.M. Reno. C.M. Reno was the proprietor of the Reno Real Estate Exchange and his son, M.C. Reno was Wales’ son-in-law,  to whom Maude Howe Wales was married. Reno would later sell the Wales farm.

Wales purchased the land for his farm from Mary Puesy Fairall, who appears to have been the the mother of Samuel H. Fairall, lawyer and politician,  who owned land just north of the Mary Fairall property that Wales bought. H.S. Fairall, possibly the son of S.H. Fairall, was an editor of the Iowa City Republican newspapers published in Iowa City.[71] Wales used local newspaper articles, especially in the Republican publications, in his efforts to publicize Holsteins and his stock breeding efforts to the community.

Wales was in the press frequently while living in Johnson County. He advocated the advantages of Holsteins in 1882 and 1883.[72] In 1883, he was noted for what was called “Possibly the largest and finest impor­tations of stock ever brought into the State of Iowa.”[73] He appeared in the paper not less than four times in 1882, six times in 1883,  and multiple times each of the following years through 1888. Topics included importation of cattle,  sales of cattle, attendance and results of stock shows, association business and new issues of the herd book. The loss of his prize cow Mercedes also became a press opportunity.[74]

Wales’ advocacy for Holstein cattle extended further, encompassing the Midwest and dairy regions of the East. In 1885, he wrote a circular to suggest the Chicago Fat Stock Show was an opportunity to showcase Holsteins that should not be missed.

DEAR SIR—I desire to call your attention to fact that there is to be held a great Dairy Show at the Exposition Building in Chicago, Ill. on Nov. 10 to 19, 1885, in connection with the Annual Fat Stock Show. lt seems to me that a most favorable opportunity thus offered us to bring to the attention of the of our grand breed of dairy cattle and I most urge you to contribute to this show, and so to advancement of our interests, by sending at least one of your finest cows for exhibition, and at least one package of butter or cheese made from Holstein-Friesian cows. Let the breeders of your State or County or neighborhood stand together and join hands for the general good by arranging to to this really National Exhibition a car-load of dairy cattle. The expense would thus be small compared to the great benefit which would surely result. Prominent Short-horn breeders are quietly and earnestly at work. They propose to demonstrate that the Short-horn is the best dairy cow, and that the butter from their cattle is at best equal to any. Let Holstein-Friesian breeders do something for interests in this matter. Send at once to Col. Charles F. Mills, Secretary, Springfield, Ill. for premium lists. Entries close Nov. 1, 1885. 

Thomas B. Wales, Jr.[75]

While in Iowa City, Wales described himself in a library trade sales publication as the first person to put a library card catalog system in use for tracking cattle pedigree to assist publishing the Holstein herd book. Writing from Iowa City, Wales said the following.

In regard to the use I put your system of indexing I will say that my attention was first drawn to it in the library of the Iowa State University at this place in 1882 and the idea of using it in the keeping of the registry of our cattle for the Holstein-Friesian Herd Book was then conceived. Each animal has its card on which is given the name and number it takes in the herd book with the number of its sire and dam, date of birth, name of its breeder, and owner with their address. . . .

I believe I am the first to put your system to use in the keeping of herd book registry and would advise your sending descriptive circulars to the office of every such association….[76]

The self promotion while passing on useful knowledge was a frequently seen trait of Wales. To further not miss any opportunity to show off his farm, in 1883 he hosted a demonstration of a new type of machine to lay agricultural drainage tile.[77] The quintessential gentleman farmer, Wales also commissioned a lithograph of some of his best-known animals and shrewdly gave a copy to the Republican which printed the article regarding is receipt twice. A copy of that lithograph is in the Library of Congress and appears at the top of this article.

We are indebted to Mr. T. B. Wales, Jr. for a fine large lithograph showing us the beauties of several of his famous Holstein cattle. The artist, Mr. Palmer, has done a creditable work, and has shown the good points of the animal to good advantage. These special favorites from the Brookbank herd, have a world wide reputation, and famous for their dairy qualities, but their beauties can only be realized by a visit to Brookbank farm, where Mr. Wales will be glad to show them to any who may call.[78]

In addition to the farm, Wales controlled property in Iowa City. Wales’ office was listed at 214½ Clinton Street and a residence at 521 N. Dubuque Street may have been for his son, Thomas.[79] Multiple reports confirm wales lived on his farm at Brookbank, situated in the suburban fields of East Lucas Township.[80]  The office was for maintaining the records to assist publishing the herd book for the Holstein-Friesian Association of America.

Mr Wales office as Secretary of the Friesian Association is located in Iowa City where a small army of lady stenographers and writers are employed in recording transfers of sales etc and making minutes of matters generally of interest to the Association”[81] 

We don’t know much more about his office location other than the address matches the Whiteway Grocery building built in 1880, expanded in 1882, and destroyed by fire in 1999. The breeding and stock raising operation for his Holstein cattle occurred at the farm, now in southeastern Iowa City not far from downtown. The farm eventually was bought by W. F. Main and became the planned factory village of East Iowa City and after that was annexed into Iowa City.

Brookbank Farm

While in Iowa, Wales lived on a suburban farm that he named Brookbank. The name was appropriate. Wales selected an area of 220 acres that straddled the south fork of Ralston Creek.[82] The property stretched east from Muscatine Road to the point the road turns east and then extended another half mile. The north boundary of the farm was the road that ran along the alignment of current day Court Street. Current day 1st Avenue runs along the section line between Sections 13 and 14.

Wales purchased the initial acres for the farm from Mary P. Fairall and others in 1881.[83] By 1889, Wales had added the land of A.C. Purdy and his farm in East Lucas Townships encompassed the northwest quarter of Section 13 and the portion of the northeast quarter of Section 14 north of the road to Muscatine.[84] 

 The unfortunate reality is that we don’t know what the farm and out buildings looked like, beyond plats and the lithograph of his cattle. The farm was described as containing a house, barn, and cattle yards. “In addition to a handsome and comfortable residence, [Wales] erected a barn and cattle yards that are models of comfort for his stock.”[85] 

The house reportedly was a block long and half a block deep, with a large barn and well house and located along current day Friendship Street.[86] W.F. Main purchased the former Wales property in 1895 and was living in the house, described as located at Garden and Friendship Streets, around 1909 and 1911.[87] A house matching this time period is located on Friendship Street today, not far from the corner of Garden Street. The surrounding properties are much younger. The Johnson County Assessor records state the date of construction as 1880. However, the house is actually fairly modest in size if the basement is excluded as living area. It does not appear to be a block long, at least not in its present form.

Contemporary accounts further illustrate the sense of importance of Brookbank farm and herd in local and national press.

Mr. Wales has a model stock farm on the edge of Iowa City and his great herd has in it some of the most noted cattle in the world.[88] 

 

We first visited the beautiful farm of 220 acres about one mile and a half from the city belonging to Mr T.B. Wales, Secretary of the Holstein-Friesian Association of America …. His grounds comprise rolling prairie and are well adapted for breeding purposes while his buildings are very extensive and present a really picturesque appearance.[89] 

 

Mr. Wales has developed his busi­ness, as a breeder and importer of Hol­stein cattle, into very large proportions. His place, Brookbank, just on the east­ern outskirts of the city, is admirably adapted to his needs. His large barns and stables have been built after the most approved plans and afford facilities for giving his famous herd the best care.[90]

 

Brookbank farm is already noted throughout the country for its fine herd of cat­tle, nor surpassed by any farm of a similar character in the United States. The herd of Holsteins which at present grazes upon its wide meadows will be the delight of all lovers of fine stock, and we are gratified at the fact that Johnson County is the centre of this interest in our country. The commendable enter­prise of Mr. Wales will be appreciated,and his efforts to make Iowa the perma­nent national centre of the dairy inter­ests will be realized.[91]

 

[Wales] has now upon his farm, near the city, the finest herd of Holstein cattle I have ever seen. This stock farm is also a model of simplicity and convenience.[92]

 

In the vicinity of Iowa City are to be found some of the choicest herds in the cattle growing state of Iowa. [Wales] has 120 Holsteins, of which number eleven are being transmitted to the various state fairs.[93]

Brookbank Herd

It appears that much of Wales’ business interests were importing, showing, and selling cattle. He also occasionally bought animals imported by others for his own foundation stock. For example, he purchased Mink from Cary Smith of Johnson county.[94] Wales was the direct importer of a number of foundation stock animals, including Mercedes, Tritomia, Mahomet, and Friesland Maid. In addition to importation and other purchases, it is clear wales was acknowledged by contemporary accounts as a breeder of fine stock as well.

Mr Wales Holstein bull Jaap Fourth won first prize. His weight at 11 months was 1,200 lbs. Average gain for 30 days, five and one third lbs. Another proof of Mr Wales success as a breeder is the price paid for his heifer Mercedes 3d at public sale vim $4,200 by far the highest price paid for a Holstein up to that date As a successful breeder and promoter of the best interests of Holstein cattle Mr Wales had few if any superiors.[95]

By 1883, Thomas B. Wales, 3rd, was making the trips to the Netherlands to purchase additional breeding stock.[96] About this time Wales had imported around 300 head of cattle.[97] Much of this stock was sold following the quarantine process for importing live animals.[98] Wales sold cattle to New York, Kansas, and Iowa.[99] Wales also  had sales in Wisconsin and Nebraska and likely other states in the Midwest.[100] As part of his marketing strategy to increase his potential for sales, Wales participated frequently in state fairs and other stock show opportunities as well as conducting butter yield tests and publishing reports of his results.

Stock Show Prizes

Wales traveled extensively with some of the choice animals in his herd to stock competitions as well as county and state fairs and expositions frequently winning awards.[101]  Local papers and industry publications chronicled Wales successes at the American Fat Stock Show of Chicago, Minnesota State Fair, St. Louis exposition, and Iowa State Fair.[102]  

Of Wales it was said, “he also did much to establish the fact that the Holstein cow can make more butter and the young stock more rapid growth than any other breed.”[103] The Brookbank herd was awarded first herd prize in 1882 at the St. Louis Fair. A three year old bull imported from Holland named Jaap won first prize for aged bulls. The prize for heifer calf also was award to wales, and his son, “Master T.B. Wales, 3rd,” won the bull calf prize for his calf Kirkwood.[104] In 1883, Jaap again won first prize at the Minnesota State Fair, Iowa State Fair, and the Chicago Fat Stock Show.[105]

At the Chicago Fat Stock Show 1885, Wales took home the first premium prize for best Holstein-Friesian butter.  Thomas B. Wales, Jr. & Son took home the blue ribbon for their dairy bull, Solon Prince, and their cow Jepma won second place.[106]

At the Kansas City Fair in 1885, Wales won several ribbons including first place for Holstein-Friesian Bull two years and under three, and one year and under two, and Screenshot_2019-06-07 Thomas B Wales and The Brookbank Herd(3)second place for Holstein Friesian Bull, three years and over. For cows, Wales won first place for two years and under three, and second prize for each of the categories two years and under and three, three years and over, and one year and under two. Wales also won the herd prize. The sweepstakes for cow any age also went to  T.B. Wales, Jr.[107] 

At the American Fat Stock and Dairy Show in Chicago in 1887, Tritomia won the sweepstakes prize and scored highest for butter.[108] Three hundred and eight animals were entered there.[109] Wales also took the sweepstakes that year at the Iowa State Fair.[110]

Butter Tests

In 1883, Wales’ foundation stock cow, Mercedes, won the Breeder’s Gazette Challenge Cup setting a world record for butter production.[111]  The Breeder’s Gazette had offered a silver cup as prize for the greatest butter yield in any thirty consecutive days between July 1, 1882 and July 1, 1883. The two leading competitors were Wales’ cow Mercedes and Valency Fuller’s Jersey Cow Mary Ann of St Lambert, the former champion.  Mercedes produced 99 lbs 6 oz and Mary Ann of St Lambert was shy of 2 lbs less, producing 97 lbs 8 oz of unsalted butter.[112] The feat was labeled the world record. Mercedes made Wales famous. Most accounts of his works recall the silver cup award. On the death of Mercedes, the Iowa City Republican stated “She was the most celebrated cow in the world.”[113] From Mercedes came Mercedes Prince, who was one of Wales choicest bulls. His progeny included six cows that averaged 1 lb of butter from 16.32 oz of milk. They tested at 16 lbs 5 oz of butter in seven days.[114] The Brookbank Herd had twenty cows that averaged 20 lbs 6.3 oz of butter over seven days. These cows were also the offspring of Mercedes Prince.[115] Foundation cow Mink tested at 29 lbs 6 oz butter in 10 days.[116] Another foundation cow, Tritomia, tested at 25 lbs 8.8 oz in seven days.[117] Twenty-nine cows from the herd at Brookbank averaged at 17 lbs 2.67 oz of butter in seven days.[118] The tests were comparable to other breeders that year, all of which appear to have been regarded as remarkable achievements in the literature. Some of the other butter tests for one day totals include Rhoda, 89.5 lbs, Jantje 86.5 lbs, Brilliante 80 lbs, Lady of Jelsum 75.5 lbs, Maid of Holstein 72 lbs, Friesland Maid 71.5 lbs of butter.[119] 

Wales attributed his success in part to the treatment of the animals—the number of times a day they were fed, what they were fed, and milking three times a day during trials. Discussing his cow Tonma’ine, Wales wrote,

The weather being very cold, often 20 degrees below zero (rather hard on a milch cow), I did not expect much from her , but she proved equal to the occasion, run­ning up to 60 lbs of milk per day and over. We gave her a trial of seven days as follows: She was milked three times a day; fed dry hay, beets, corn and oats, chess bran and a little oil-meal. The total amount of milk produced, 445 lbs 6 oz. Total amount of fine, dry marketable butter from said milk, 34 lbs 13½ oz. [120]

He echoed these thoughts when quoted in another piece titled The Hardy Holsteins, and Great Producers of Milk, Butter, and Beef, which ran in the local paper.[121]

Mink finished her yearly record on the 15th of June. She has received only good, ordinary dairy care. She has not made enormous yield from air alone, but has had all she wanted of nutritious food. During the flush of her yield she was milked three times per day, but as soon as her bag would hold the milk she was milked but twice, though we are well aware that her yield would have been much increased by continu­ing to milk her three times.[122] 

Brookbank Sale

Starting in 1884, importations and domestically bred cattle began to outpace the demand for purchases by dairy farmers.[123] This likely affected the ability to sell cattle, though Wales continued to hold auctions for the next four years.  But within a few short years of achieving notoriety, Wales’ herd was bypassed as the champions in butter production.  A highly scrutinized butter test was held at the New York Dairy Show of 1887. The winners were two Holsteins, Clothilde and Clothilde 4th, owned by Smiths & Powell, Co, which won first and second prize unseating the Brookbank herd as champion dairy cows.[124] The amounts of butter produced in 24 hours: 2 lbs 7.5 oz for Clothilde and 2 lbs 0.25 oz for Clothilde 4d, and Clothilde also set a record for milk produced in a year producing over 26,000 lbs of milk.[125]

Without citing a reason, Wales’ son Thomas indicated that Wales began to disperse his herd and focused solely on being Secretary of the Holstein-Friesian Association of America at this point.[126] The first dispersion sale was held in Kansas City in September, 1887.[127] That was followed in May the next year in Cleveland, Ohio.[128] It’s not clear from the many ads, most of which were hard sales pitches, how this sale compared to others. The ads state the sale would include more than 80-head. Similar ad campaigns had been run in 1885 for an auction at Brookbank Farm.[129] Those adds also were for 80 head of mostly “young cows and heifers.” It also can be noticed that Mercedes Prince had been offered, but not sold, between 1885 and 1888. Finally selling of the majority of his stock, it appears the auctions were over following the “Grand Dispersion” in 1888.

The Breeder’s Gazette opined at the time:

…none will be better or more justly remembered than of Mr Wales. For seventeen years an enthusiastic devotee of the breeder’s art he has with consummate skill judgment builded up a herd of these milk and butter cattle which beyond doubt ranks in quality second to none among truly great herds of the breed and now that circumstances beyond control compel him to reluctantly relinquish the fascinating pursuit which as so long engaged his close attention….[130]

In 1892, Robert Wales returned from Boston to manage the farm until the land was placed on the market for sale during the following year.[131] The following ad ran throughout 1893.

For Sale.—Brookbank Stock Farm, Iowa City, Iowa.— The farm and residence property of Thos. B. Wales, located on the eastern border of Iowa City. This property is but one mile from the center of said city and on its best and growing side; choice prairie land and buildings, all new and of modern style. For its size this is the finest farm property in Iowa, and borders the most attractive city in the State. Educational facilities are not surpassed in the entire West, the Iowa State University being located here. For particulars address Reno’s Real Estate Exchange.[132]

Leaving Iowa and Later Life

Wales left Iowa City sometime around 1891.[133]  He was no longer listed a board member of Iowa City National Bank by 1890.[134] In 1893, he was reported to be back from Boston for a business trip, likely related to selling the farm.[135] Also in 1893 Wales served as a cattle judge at the Chicago World’s Fair.[136] This would be his last great thing.

Wales lost the vote for the Secretary of The Holstein-Friesian Association of America in 1894.[137] Wales’s son Thomas wrote that at this point Wales ended his involvement in that association. Having sold off Brookbank and without the herd book to publish,  Wales appears to have entered retirement. [138] In 1911, his wife Anna passed away.[139] At some point following the death of Anna, Wales began to spend winters in Pasadena, California with his son Robert, which is where he died in February 1922.[140] The Iowa City press labeled him a famous stock breeder.[141] In Anna’s obituary in the Iowa City press it was noted that Wales was at one time one of the leading stock raisers of the country.[142] The local press once called him the owner of the best herd of Holstein Cattle in the world.[143] On May 2, 1888, The Breeder’s Gazette wrote:

“… [A]mong those whose names will go down in history as the great improvers of this breed and champion of its claims before the public, none will be better to more justly remembered than that of Mr. Wales. For seventeen years an enthusiastic, painstaking devotee of the breeder’s art, he has with consummate skill and judgment builded up a herd of these “milk and butter cattle” which, beyond doubt, ranks in quality second to none among the truly great herds of the breed.”

Wales’ reputation as a breeder of fine stock was considered common knowledge following his death in the early twentieth century.[144]

 


Figures

Holstein-Friesian Cattle of the Brookbank Herd. Iowa City, Iowa, ca. 1886. Commissioned by Thos. B. Wales Jr., Iowa City, Iowa; G. Palmer, artist; printed by J. Ottmann, Lithographing Co., New York, In the collection of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-pga-02333. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003674261/. PicturedMercedes Prince, Mercedes 2nd, Mercedes Mink, Tritomia, Mink, Mink 4th, Mink 3rd. Article discussing the painting, Iowa City Weekly Republican, Nov 10, 1886, p 5.

Thomas B. Wales, from Prescott, M.S., ed. Thomas B. Wales—Holstein Pioneer. Holstein-Friesian World, 19, p 1227, 1922. https://books.google.com/books?id=gEJCAQAAMAAJ

Teitje 2d, from Breeder’s Gazette, 1885, p 383. https://books.google.com/books?id=0405AQAAMAAJ

Mercedes, from Prescott, M.S., ed. Thomas B. Wales—Holstein Pioneer. Holstein-Friesian World, 19, p 1227, 1922. https://books.google.com/books?id=gEJCAQAAMAAJ

Tritomia 4004 Holstein Herd Book, Butter Record, from Thirty Eighth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, Plate following p 78, Boston: State of Massachusetts, 1891. https://archive.org/stream/annualreportofse3890mass/#page/n115/

Cropped section of plate X of Novak’s New Map of Johnson County, Iowa, 1889, with approximate location of house shown at arrow. Copy or original image available in Iowa Digital Library, Iowa City: University of Iowa Libraries.

Photo of the Wales home. Iowa City: Johnson County Assessor’s Office.

Sales ad for Brookbank dispersion from Breeder’s Gazette, 1888, p 455. https://books.google.com/books?id=Yo85AQAAMAAJ


Sources

Aurner, Charles [Clarence] Ray. Leading Events in Johnson County, Iowa, History. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Western Historical Press, 1912. Copy available at State Historical Society of Iowa Library and Archives Research Center, Iowa City.

Bennett, Eugine, In the Home of the Breed, Holstein Breeder and Dairyman, vol. 3, no. 21, 1924, pp. 695-697.

Benninger, W. Holstein-Friesians, pp. 438-439 in Southern Cultivator and Dixie Farmer, 1893. https://books.google.com/books?id=wQY-AQAAMAAJ

Chenery, Winthrop. Holstein Herd-book, Containing a Record of all Holstein Cattle in America, Association of Breeders of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle, s.l.: s.n., 1872. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924066650361

Earp, Jackie. Memorial page for Cpt Thomas Beal Walles, III (Feb 18399 Feb 1922), Find a Grave Memorial No. 182101825. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/182101825/thomas-beale-wales

Ellis, William. Norwich University 18191911. Vol. 2. Montpelier, VT: The Capital City Press, 1911. https://books.google.com/books?id=qFhMAAAAMAAJ&lpg

Hoard, W. The Dairy Temperment of Cows. Thirty Eighth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, pp. 67–89, Boston: State of Massachusetts, 1891. https://archive.org/stream/annualreportofse3890mass/#page/n115/

Holstein Association USA, Inc. 2019. http://www.holsteinusa.com/holstein_breed/breedhistory.html

Houghton, Frederick. Holstein-Friesian Cattle: A History of the Breed and Its Development In America. Brattleboro, VT.: Press of the Holstein-Friesian Register, 1897. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002025069

Hoxie, Samuel. Dutch-Friesian Herd Book, vol. 1, Whitestone, NY: American Association of the Breeders of Thoroughbred Dutch-Friesian Cattle, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b761980

        Holstein-Friesian Advanced Registry, Utica, NY: Holstein-Friesian Association of America, 1891.

Library Bureau Catalog. Classified Illustrated Catalog of the Library Bureau, Inc. Boston: Library Bureau, 1890. https://books.google.com/books?id=nlLpAAAAMAAJ

Lush, Jay, J. Holbert, and O. Willham. Genetic History of the Holstein-Friesian Cattle in the United States. Journal of Heredity, Vol. 27, No. 2, February 1936, pp. 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a104174

Morrison, Leonard, and Stephen Sharples. History of the Kimball Family in America from 1634 to 1897 and Its Ancestors. Boston: Damrell and Upham. 1897.  https://books.google.com/books?id=DrJsSz3KXHoC

Novak, J. Novak’s New Map of Johnson County, Iowa, 1889. Copy available at Iowa Digital Library. http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/

Pearson Thomas. Catalogue of the Graduates of Middlebury College, Windsor, MA: Vermont Chronicle Press, 1853. http://www.ancestraltrackers.net/vt/counties/addison/catalogue-graduates-middlebury-college.pdf

Prescott, M.S., ed. Thomas B. Wales—Holstein Pioneer. Holstein-Friesian World, 19, pp. 1227,1248, 1922. https://books.google.com/books?id=gEJCAQAAMAAJ

Prescott, Sheldon, and Frank Price. Holstein-Friesian History. [Lacona, NY]: The Corse Press, 1930. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924003051020

Reynolds, Howard, ed. Thomas B. Wales Dead. The Holstein Breeder and Dairyman, Mar 8, 1922.

Stothard, Paul, Jung-Woo Choi, Urmila Basu, Jennifer Sumner-Thomson, Yan Meng, Xiaoping Liao, and Stephen Moore. Whole Genome Resequencing of Black Angus and Holstein Cattle for SNP and CNV Discovery, BMC Genomics 12, p. 559, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-12-559

Thompson and Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Johnson County, Iowa, 1870. Copy available at Iowa Digital Library. http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/

Wales, Thomas. Holstein Herd-Book, Vol. 5 Containing a Record of All Holstein Cattle in America. Holstein Breeders Association of America, 1881. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924066650270

Holstein Herd-Book, Vol. 8 Containing a Record of All Holstein Cattle in America. Holstein Breeders Association of America, 1885. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924066650254

Holstein Herd-Book, Vol. 15, revised and corrected. Holstein Breeders Association of America, 1885. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b761984;view=1up;seq=11

Weldenegodgaud, Melak. Ruslan Popov, Kisun Pokharel, Innokentyi Ammosov, Yao Ming, Zoya Ivanova, and Juha Kantenen. Whole-Genome Sewuencing of three Native Cattle Breeds Originating from the Norhternmost Cattle Farming Regions. Frontiers in Genetics January 11, 2019 https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00728


[1] Library Bureau Catalog, 1890, p. 75

[2] Iowa City Daily Republican, Oct 15, 1883, p 2. 

[3] Reynolds, 1922, p 155; Prescott 1922, p 1227.

[4] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.; Houghton, 1897, p 267.

[5] Prescott, 1922, p 1227.

[6] Who We Are, Holstein Association, USA, 2019.

[7] Iowa State Press, Dec 12, 1888, p 3.

[8] Western Rural, Dec 31, 1881. p 418;  Iowa City Republican, Semi-Centennial Edition with Directory of Iowa City, October 20, 1890; Iowa City Daily Republican, Dec 3, 1886, p 3; Iowa State Press, Dec 12, 1888, p 3.

[9] Federal Census, 1860.

[10] Federal Census, 1860.

[11] Pearson, 1853, p 123.

[12] Ellis, 1911, p 247; Federal Census, 1860

[13] Marriage Record; Morrison and Sharples, 1897, p 776.

[14] Earp, 2017.

[15] Morrison and Sharples, 1897, p 776

[16] Iowa City Daily Press, Apr 5, 1911, p 1.

[17] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1883, p 4.;  Prescott 1922, p 1248; Breeder’s Gazette, Sep 3, 1885, p 383.

[18] Johnson County Independent, August 14, 1913, p 8.

[19] Iowa City Weekly Republican, March 9, 1892, p 6.

[20] Federal Census, 1870.

[21] The cow was Maud; Wales, 1885b, p 58.

[22] USDA Cooperative Extension website.

[23] Federal Census

[24] Wales 1885c.

[25] Houghton, 1897, p 42–43.

[26] Benninger, 1893, p. 439.

[27] Iowa City Daily Republican, Apr 19, 1883, p 8.

[28] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 5.

[29] Chenery, 1872, p 9.

[30] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 1.

[31] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 1.; Lush, Holbert, and Willham, 1936, p 1.

[32] Wales 1885c., p 9; Houghton, 1897, p 9.

[33] Houghton, 1897, p 9.

[34] Lush, Holbert, and Willham, 1936, p 1.

[35] Weldenegodgaud et al., 2019; Stothard et al., 2011.

[36] History of the Holstein Breed, Holstein Association USA, 2019.

[37] Wales 1885c, p 9; Lush, Holbert, and Wilham, 1936, p.1.; Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1883, p 4;  Western Rural, Dec 31, 1881, p 424; Iowa City Daily Republican, Nov 1, 1882, p 4.

[38] Hoxie, 1880, p 3.

[39] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 17.

[40] Wales, 1885a, p 14, and similar at Wales, 1885b, p 5.

[41] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 8., Wales 1885c.

[42] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 8.

[43] Lush, Holbert, and Willham, 1936, p 62; Prescott and Price, 1930, p 4.

[44] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 5.

[45] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 6.

[46] Wales, 1885b, p 43–67.

[47] Naming conventions for the cattle are set by the breeding association. Generally they indicate the pedigree of the animal as well as sex.

[48] Bennett, 1924, p 696.

[49] Prescott 1922, p 1248.

[50] Prescott 1922, p 1248.

[51] Iowa State Press, Oct 1, 1884, p 3; Iowa City Republican, Jun 21, 1887, p 3; Iowa City Daily Republican, Mar 21, 1888, p 6.

[52] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4

[53] Houghton, 1897, p 267; Wales 1885c; Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[54] Chenery 1872, p 1; Wales 1881; Prescott 1922, p 1227.

[55] Iowa City Daily Republican, Apr 21, 1885, p 4;  Iowa State Press, April 9, 1885, p 2.

[56] Iowa City Daily Republican, Apr 21, 1885, p 4; Prescott 1922, p 1227.

[57] Aurner, 1912, p 422; Iowa City Daily Republican, Page4, 1883-03-18

[58] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sept 4, 1882, p 4.

[59] Iowa City Daily Press, Mar 26, 1880, p 4.

[60] Iowa City Daily Republican, Oct 19–25, 1881, p 1.

[61] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 1.

[62] Western Rural, Dec 31, 1881, p 418.

[63] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[64] Iowa City Daily Republican, Nov 1, 1882 , p 4.

[65] Iowa City Daily Republican, May 13, 1883, p 4.

[66] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1883, p 4.

[67] Schwieder, 1996, p 134.

[68] Winters, 1990, cited in Schwieder, 1996, p 136.

[69] History of Johnson County, Iowa, 1883, p 673.

[70] Iowa City Weekly Republican, Mar 21, 1883, p 6.

[71] American Agriculturalist, 1887, p.426.

[72] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[73] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1883, p 4.

[74] Iowa City Daily Republican, Mar 18, 1884, p 1.

[75] Kentucky Stock Farm, vol 4, no 19, p 12.

[76] Library Bureau Catalog, 1890, p 75.

[77] Iowa City Daily Republican, Page3, 1887-03-29

[78] Iowa City Daily Republican, Nov 5, 1886, p 3; Iowa City Weekly Republican, Nov 10, 1886, p 5.

[79] Iowa City Republican, Semi-Centennial Edition with Directory of Iowa City, October 20, 1890.; Iowa City Daily Republican, May 23, 1889, p. 3.

[80] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[81] American Agriculturalist, vol 45, 1886, p 425.

[82] American Agriculturalist, vol 45, 1886, p 425.

[83] Iowa City Daily Republican, Jan 13, 1881, p 3. 

[84] Novak, 1889, plate 10 ; Thompson and Everts, 1870, plate 18.

[85] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[86] Weber, 1987, p 77.

[87] 1909 city directory; Iowa City Republican, April 5, 1911, p 4.

[88] Iowa City Daily Republican, Jun 21, 1887, p 3.

[89] American Agriculturalist, vol 45, 1886, p 425.

[90] Iowa City Daily Republican, Mar 18, 1884, p 1.

[91] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1888, p 4.

[92] Western Rural, Dec 31, 1881. p 418;

[93] American Agriculturalist, vol 45, 1886, p 425.

[94] Wales 1885b, p. 205.

[95] Prescott, 1922, p 1248.

[96] Iowa City Daily Republican, Apr. 13, 1883, p 4; Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 24, 1883, p 4.

[97] Prescott and Price 1930, p 12.

[98] Prescott and Price 1930, p 12.

[99] Iowa City Daily Republican, Nov 1, 1882 , p 4.

[100] Houghton, 1897, p 257; Breeder’s Gazette, Jul 30, 1885, p 160

[101] Iowa City Daily Republican, October 15, 1882, p 2.

[102] Iowa City Daily Republican, Mar 18, 1883, p 4.

[103] Prescott 1922, p 1227.

[104] Iowa City Daily Republican, Nov 1, 1882 , p 4.

[105] Prescott, 1922, p 1248.

[106] Breeder’s Gazette, Nov 19, 1885, p 796;  National Stockman and Farmer, 1885, p. 796; Iowa City Daily Republican, November 23, 1885, p 4.

[107] Breeder’s Gazette, Oct 1, 1885, p 525.

[108] Iowa City Daily Republican, Friday, Nov 18, 1887, p.3.

[109] Hoard, 1891, p 78.

[110] National Livestock Journal, Sep 13, 1887, p. 580.; Houghton, 1897, p 65.

[111] Iowa City Daily Republican, Oct 15, 1883; p 2.

[112] Prescott, 1922, p 1248; Houghton, 1897, p 42.

[113] Iowa City Daily Republican, Mar 18, 1884, p. 1.

[114] Houghton, 1897, p 65.

[115] Houghton, 1897, p 65.

[116] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[117] Hoxie, 1891, p. 165

[118] Houghton, 1897, p 43.

[119] Iowa City Republican, May 13, 1883, p 4.

[120] Iowa City Weekly Republican, Mar 21, 1888, p 6.

[121] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882.

[122] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 4, 1882, p 4.

[123] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 17.

[124] Houghton, 1897, p 43.

[125] Houghton, 1897, p 65.

[126] Prescott, 1922, p 1248

[127] Houghton, 1897, p 283.

[128] The Cultivator and Country Gentleman, 1888, p. 341; National Stockman and Farmer, 1888, p 55; Breeder’s Gazette, 1888, p 405; 519

[129] Breeder’s Gazette, 1883, p. 383.

[130] Iowa City Weekly Republican, March 9, 1892, p 6.

[131] Iowa City Daily Republican, Jan 1, 1893, p 3; Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 21, 1893, p 3.

[132] Iowa City Republican, Semi-Centennial Edition with Directory of Iowa City, October 20, 1890;  City Directory for 1891–1892; Iowa City Weekly Republican, March 9, 1892, p 6.

[133] Iowa City Republican, Semi-Centennial Edition with Directory of Iowa City, October 20, 1890.

[134] Iowa City Daily Republican, Sep 5, 1893, p 4.

[135] Reynolds, 1922, p 155.

[136] Prescott and Price, 1930, p 13.

[137] Prescott, 1922, p 1248.

[138] Iowa City Republican, Apr 5, 1911, p 4.

[139] Prescott, 1922, p 1248; Reynolds, 1922, p 155.

[140] Iowa City Press Citizen, Feb 24, 1922, p 9.

[141] Iowa City Republican, Apr 5, 1911, p 4.

[142] Johnson County Independent, August 14, 1913, p 8.

[143] Bennett, 1924, p 695

 

 


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